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Full text of "Buchla 100 Owner's Manual"

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Buchla Electronic Music System 
Users Manual written for CBS 
Musical Instruments by , 

Dr. Hubert Howe, Queens 
College, New York. 



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USERS GUIDE TO 
THE BUCHLA MODULAR ELECTRONIC MUSIC SYSTEM 

INTRODUCTION 



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1. Modules 

The first thing you will probably notice about your 
equipment is that each unit assembled in the cabinet 
is of the same basic size, 7 inches high and 4y 4 inches 
wide or a multiple thereof. These individual units are 
called modules, and they are each designed to per- 
form various specific functions, which are described 
in detail below. On most modules, there are a number 
of jacks at the top of the unit and various diaJs and 
switches below. Usually the top row of jacks is for out- 
puts and the row underneath for inputs, although there 
are some modules that have no inputs, and some mod- 
ules have the jacks located at the right end. Most out- 
puts are available at multiple jacks, in order that they 
may be connected to more than one input. When there 
are dials which determine some aspect of an input at 
a particular jack, there is a line drawn from the dial to 
the jack in question. The functions of all jacks, dials 
and switches are clearly labelled on each module. At 
the very top of the module is printed its name and mod- 
el number. 

Many dual modules are included in the Buchla Sys- 
tem. A dual module is actually two independent modules 
within one panel. Sometimes they are totally indepen- 
dent (such as the Model 165 Dual Random Voltage 
Source) and sometimes they are capable of being either 
independent or interconnected (such as the Model 106 
Six-Channel Mixer). 

2. Signals 

After you have examined the individual modules in 
your cabinet, the next thing that you will probably no- 
tice is that there are different kinds of jacks and patch 
cords for the system. A patch cord is a wire with a plug 
connected at each end, which is used to carry signals 
from one module to another. Patch cords are of several 
colors, which are used to distinguish different lengths. 
The system employs three basic varieties of signals, 
each with a distinctly different function: 

(1) Audio Signals are simply sounds. They may be 
generated internally by various modules such as oscil- 
lators or harmonic generators, or they may come from 
external sources such as a tape recorder or microphone. 
Audio signals may be processed by further devices in 
the system, such as filters, frequency shifters, reverb- 
eration units, etc. until they are finally taken in some 
form and passed to a tape recorder or speaker. The 
final sound which is played or recorded is called the 
system output. (The synthesizer can produce several 
system outputs at one time.) The patch cords carrying 



audio signals within the system terminate with grey 
miniature phone plugs at each end. A standard level 
of db (ref. 600 ohms) is employed for audio signals, 
(Sometimes audio signals will be referred to simply as 
"signals".) 

(2) Control Voltages are signals which are used to de- 
termine the operating characteristics of various mod- 
ules in the system. For example, the frequency of an os- 
cillator may be determined either by a dial on the front 
panel or by a control voltage coming from another mod- 
ule. Control voltages may determine practically any as* 
pect of a sound, and the use and significance of this 
principle is explained in detail below. Control voltages 
are processed at Black jacks on the front panels of the 
modules, and they are carried by patch cords terminat- 
ing in black banana plugs. Timing pulses, as explained 
below, also use patch cords ending in banana plugs, 
but you have been provided with two sets of these patch 
cords, one with red plugs and one with black plugs. To 
avoid confusion, it is suggested that you use the black 
patch cords for control voltages, though the color of Q 
the plugs, of course, makes no difference. Control volt- 
ages range from .5 to 15 volts. 

(3) Timing Pulses are signals which initiate or trigger 
events on other modules. The events initiated may be 
a single note or entire series of events. Timing Pulses 
are produced by touch controlled voltage sources, se 
quencers, or timing pulse generators. They are proc 
essed at red jacks on the modules, and they are car 
ried by patch cords terminating in red banana plugs 
Timing pulses are approximately 10 volts in amplitude 

There are two rules which must be followed in con 
necting signals from one module to another: (1) The 
path of flow must always be from the outputs of one 
module to the inputs of other modules, and (2) the 
jacks at each end of the connection must be the same. 
That is, audio signals must be connected to audio sig- 
nals, control voltages to control voltages, and timing 
pulses to timing pulses. 

3. The Concept of Voltage Control 

Voltage Control is the principle which allows the op- 
erating characteristics of various modules to be de- 
termined by other modules. In such a way, the settings 
on various instruments can be dynamically varied with- 
out the composer having to intervene manually, and the C 

compositional magnitude of the system is greatly in- 
creased. Voltage control is one of the most important 
characteristics of the system, which makes the equip- 



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ment much more powerful and flexible than any of the 
devices in older "classical" electronic music studios. 

In the Buchla System, there are several modules 
whose purpose is solely to generate and process con- 
trol voltages. There are other modules which generate 
or process audio signals only, and there are further 
modules which combine control voltages and audio sig- 
nals in such a way that some characteristic of the au- 
dio signal is determined by the control voltage. 

Modules which generate or process control voltages 
or timing pulses only are referred to as compositional 
(or semi-compositional) modules, for they can be used 
to determine various aspects of a piece of music such 
as the pitch, amplitude, or duration of a sequence of 
notes. These characteristics can be entirely predeter- 
mined, by setting various dials before running through 
the composition, or entirely random, or these two ex- 
tremes can be combined to any desired degree. Under 
certain circumstances, the equipment can actually be 
made to "compose" music all by itself, in a manner 
that will be described in detail below (see Example 2). 

On the other hand, modules which generate or proc- 
ess audio signals only are referred to as performance 
modules, for the actual sounds they produce must be 
determined either by the composer (who chose the 
settings on the dials) or by control voltages determined 
by compositional modules. A major part of learning how 
to use the system involves learning how to use the prin- 
ciple of voltage control in such a way that the com- 
poser's hands are not tied up in too many operations 

at one time. 

On modules that have external-internal switches to 
allow some characteristics of a signal to be determined 
either by a dial on the front panel or by an external con- 
trol voltage, there is generally an approximate relation- 
ship between the dial on the panel and the dials on the 
external devices such as that when both dials are point- 
ing in the same direction, they should produce the same 
result. This relationship is only approximate, however, 
and must always be checked by ear. tn general, the ac- 
curacy with which modules can be controlled is only to 
within certain broad limitations. The dials are usually 
marked only within the upper and lower limits of their 
capabilities, and intermittent values must be deter- 
mined by approximation. Any predetermined series of 
pitches or other frequency characteristics must be 

tuned by ear. 

It is important to remember that all control voltages 
within the system are completely compatible, so that 
any module which has a control voltage output can be 
used to control any other module with a control voltage 
input. Therefore, the same control voltage can deter- 
mine more than one property of a sequence of notes, 
. % so that, for example, the rhythm of a passage can cor- 
respond precisely to a succession of pitches or ampli- 
tudes, or the envelope generator can be used to pro- 
duce a change in frequency as well as amplitude. The 



use of control voltages in ways that might not be sug- 
gested by -the most ordinary interconections is encour- 
aged, and further demonstrates the versatility and 
imagination of the system, 

A SEQUENCE OF TUTORIAL EXAMPLES 

Example 1 

Let us start with the simplest possible example, that 
of a single tone. Take the system output* from any out- 
put jack on the Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscilla- 
tor, and make sure that the external-internal switch is 
set to "internal". By manipulating the bottom dial, you 
can vary the frequency of the tone from 5 to 20,000 
cycles per second, and by moving the top dial you can 
change the timbre of the tone from a pure sine wave, 
which contains all harmonic partiais (theoretically) in 
a descending amplitude series. The middle dial, marked 
"frequency modulation", has a line connected to an 
audio signal input jack, and has no effect on the tone 
unless another audio signal is patched into it. This sig- 
nal may be taken either from another oscillator or from 
the other side of the dual oscillator in this panel. When 
connected, the frequency of frequency modulation is 
determined by the frequency of the input signal and the 
amplitude of frequency modulation by the middle dial. 
*The manner in which the system output may be taken 
depends upon the provisions made at your particular 
installation. In some cases the Model 124 Patchboard 
may be directly wired as a central patch panel in a 
studio, where all tape recorders, microphones, and oth- 
er devices may be interconnected. In other cases a spe- 
cial patch may be made from the system output jack 
to a tape recorder input or power amplifier and-speaker. 
In all examples described here, it will be assumed that 
the system output can be immediately accessible to the 
user, so that anyone going through these steps exactly 
will be able to stop and hear the result at any interme- 
diate stage. 

Suppose now that you want to determine the frequency 
of the oscillator by some other means, in order to run 
through a series of notes, for example. Make a connec- 
tion from either of the top two rows of jacks in the Mod- 
el 112 Touch Controlled Voltage Source to the control 
voltage input on the oscillator, and set the external- 
internal switch to "external". Now the frequency of 
the oscillator is determined by one of the dials on the 
Model 112 Touch Controlled Voltage Source — the dial 
which is directly above the last key to be touched and 
to the left of the row of jacks from which the connection 
to the oscillator is made. Moving your finger from one 
key to the next causes the dial which determines the 
frequency to be changed, except that when you remove 
your finger entirely the last value simply holds. The 
different positions on the dial which is used to control 
frequency from the Touch Controlled Voltage Source 
have aproximately the same value as the internal fre- 
quency dial on the oscillator itself, so that when both 



are pointing in the same direction they should produce 
the same frequency. (This important relationship be- 
tween internal and external control voltage dials is 
maintained on all modules with external -interna I 
swftches similar to that on the Model 158 Dual Sine- 
Sawtooth Oscillator.) Now a succession of frequencies 
may be tuned individually on the dials on the Model 
112 Touch Controlled Voltage Source, and played 
through in any rhythm. (The Model 112 Touch Con- 
trolled Voltage Source can also produce a control volt- 
age proportional to finger pressure on any key, but this 
provides such a wide range of voltages that it is usually 
necessary to use it in conjunction with a Model 156 
Dual Control Voltage Processor.) 

At this point, however, we notice that all of the at- 
tacks of the notes are instantaneous, and they never 
cut off unless the system output is unplugged; the tones 
have no envelope. To correct this problem, it is neces- 
sary to use a Model 180 Dual Attack Generator and 
Model 110 Dual Voltage-Controlled Gate (or a Model 
107 Voltage-Controlled Mixer). The Model 180 Dual 
Attack Generator produces a control voltage which has 



an attack, duration, and decay of determinable times. 
In order to apply this control voltage to the amplitude 
of a tone, it is necessary to use the Model 110 Dual 
Voltage-Controlled Gate. 

The Model 180 Dual Attack Generator produces its 
envelope when it receives a timing pulse input from 
another module. In order to have it produce an envelope 
at the same time that a key on the Model 112 Touch 
Controlled Voltage Source is touched, it is necessary to 
patch from the timing pulse output on the Model 112 
Touch Controlled Voltage Source is touched, it is neces- 
sary to patch from the timing pulse output on the Model 
112 keyboard to the timing pulse input on the Model 
180 Attack Generator, to connect the control voltage 
output on the Model 180 Attack Generator to the con- 
trol voltage input of the Model 110 Dual Voltage-Con- 
trolled Gate, and to patch the audio signal output from 
the Model 158 Oscillator to the audio signal input on 
the Model 110 Gate. The system output is then avail- 
able at the audio signal output of the Model 110 Gate 
(see Figure 1A). 



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The attack and decay characteristics of the tones 
may now be controlled by the dials on the Model 180 
Dual Attack Generator. The top dial controls the attack 
time, which may be varied from .002 to 1 seconds; the 
decay time is controlled by the middle dial, and may be 
varied from .002 to 5 seconds. By moving the external- 
internal switch to the "external" position, it is possible 
to make the note duration be determined by the trigger 
length, which in this case is the length of time you 
leave your finger on the keyboard. The dial on the 
Model 110 Dual Voltage-Controlled Gate allows a fur- 
ther seting of the final amplitude level of the tone. 
Now it is posible to run through an entire series of 
tones of predetermined frequencies in a rhythm which 
will be determined by the way you touch the keys on 
the Model 112 Touch Controlled Voltage Source. 

At this point we may consider various additional sig- 
nal modifications that we may wish to make to the 
series of tones produced by the above example. For 
instance, if we would like to add frequency modulation 
to the tones, it is necessary to patch another audio 
signal into the jack connected by a line to the middle 
dial on the Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator. 



The amplitude of frequency modulation is controlled 
by the middle dial, and turning the amplitude all the 
way down can eliminate the frequency modulation en- 
tirely. The frequency and "shape" of frequency modu- 
lation are determined by the characteristics of the in- 
put signal, which for this reason is called the "modu- 
lating" tone. To judge this effect precisely, compare 
the frequency-modulated tone to the modulating tone 
as separate audio signals by taking the system output 
from each side of the Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth 
Oscillator. 

If we wish to take both the modulating tone and the 
basic tone from both sides of the Model 158 Dual Sine- 
Sawtooth Oscillator, we must use an additional control 
voltage to determine the frequency of the modulating 
tone, for the external -internal switch controls both os- 
cillators in this case. (We are assuming that the other 
side of the oscillator is still connected as in Figure 1A.) 
This control voltage could be taken from the other row 
of dials on the Model 112 Touch Controlled Voltage 
Souce, in which case we could preset the frequencies of 
both oscillators and go through an entire series of fre- 
quency-modulated tones (see Figure IB). 



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Instead of using one tone to frequency-modulate an- 
other in this manner, we may chose simply to mix the 
two tones together into one sound. This could be ac- 
complished by using the Model 106 Six-Channel Mixer. 
We need to patch simply from the two outputs on the 
Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator to any of the 
inputs on the Model 106 Mixer, and from one of the 
center outputs on the Model 106 Mixer (marked "all") 
to the audio signal input on the Model 110 Gate. The 
amplitude of each of the tones is now controlled sepa- 
rately by the dials leading to each of the input jacks on 
the Model 106 Mixer. The Model 106 Mixer has six 



inputs, so that up to six separate tones can be com- 
bined at one time- The left and right sides of the mixer 
can also be used separately as two three-channel mix- 
ers, and the corresponding output jacks are on the 
outside of the top row of jacks (marked "1-3" and 
"4-6"). Although in this example the amplitudes of each 
of the tones is controlled separately by the dials on the 
front panel of the Model 106 Mixer, it is important to 
remember that the pair of tones will have the same en- 
velope and total amplitude, for they are being combined 
into one signal (see Figure 1C). 



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SYSTEM OUTPUT 




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Example 2 

Now we are ready to consider a more complicated 
example. Suppose we would like to generate a se- 
quence of partly predetermined, partly random tones 
differentiated by pitch, rhythm, and amplitude. It is 
actually very easy to solve problems of this kind with 
the Buchla System, because of the versatility of com- 
positional devices and the complete compatibility of 
control voltages. 

It is clear that we will have to use the Model 165 
Dual Random Voltage Source in this example, but we 
will also need a module which can combine the ran- 
dom voltage with a predetermined voltage. Such a 
module would be the Model 156 Dual Control Voltage 
Processor. We will also use the Model 140 Timing 
Pulse Generator and the Model 123 Sequential Voltage 
Source as compositional modules in this example. 

First, if you have moved to this example after finish- 
ing Example 1, it would be helpful to remove all the 
patches from the modules and start from scratch. Then 
follow these directions: 

• Patch from the "all pulses" output on the Model 
140 Timing Pulse Generator to the timing pulse 
input on the Model 123 (or Model 146) Sequential 
Voltage Source. 

• Patch from the "all pulses" output on the Model 
140 Timing Pulse Generator to the trigger input 
on a Model 180 Attack Generator. 

• Check the three-position rotary switch on the 
Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator to see that it 
is pointing toward "repetitive". 

• Patch from any timing pulse output on the Model 
123 Sequential Voltage Source to the timing pulse 
input on a Model 165 Dual Random Voltage 
Source. 

(This completes the patching network for timing 
pulses in Example 2) 

• Patch from a control voltage output on the Model 
165 Dual Random Voltage Source to one of the in- 
puts on the left side of a Model 156 Dual Control 
Voltage Processor. 

• Patch one of the three pairs of outputs on the 
Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to the other 
input on the left side of the Model 156 Dual Con- 
trol Voltage Processor, 

• Patch the output of the Model 156 Control Voltage 
Processor to the control voltage input connected 
to the "period" control on the Model 140 Timing 
Pulse Generator, and turn the external-internal 
switch to "external". 

• Patch from another control voltage output of the 
Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to the con- 
trol voltage input on a Model 158 Dual Sine-Saw- 
tooth Oscilator, and turn the external-internal 
switch to "external". 

• Patch from the third control voltage output of the 
Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to the con- 



trol voltage input on the left side of a Model 110 
Dual Voltage Controlled Gate. 

• Patch from the output of the Model 180 Attack 
Generator to the control voltage input on the right 
side of the Model 110 Dual Voltage Controlled 
Gate. 

(This completes the patching network for control 
voltages in Example 2) 

• Patch the audio signal output of the Model 158 
Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator to the audio signal 
input on the right side of the Model 110 Dual Volt- 
age Controlled Gate. 

• Patch the output of the right side of the Model 
110 Dual Voltage Controlled Gate to the audio 
signal input on the left side of the same Model 
110 Dual Voltage Controlled Gate. 

• The system output is now available as the output 
of the left side of the Model 1 10 Dual Voltage Con- 
trolled Gate. This entire network of patches is il- 
lustrated in Figure 2. 

In this set-up, the pitch and amplitude of the tones 
will be repetitive and controlled by the associated dials 
on the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source. The 
ryhthm of the tones wil be partly random and partly 
repetitive, and since the timing pulse input to the 
Model 165 Random Voltage Source comes from the 
Model 123 Sequencer, there will be an eight-note rhyth- 
mic pattern which will be repeated in various degrees 
of augmentation and diminution. This will be most no- 
ticeable if the bottom dial on the Model 156 Control 
Voltage Processor is pointing straight up; the more it 
is pointed toward either side, the more the rhythm of 
the tones will be either totally random or totally repeti- 
tive. Note that if the right side of the Model 156 Dual 
Control Voltage Processor is used, the same basic pat- 
tern will emerge, but the value of the input in the right 
jack will be inverted. 

If we would like the pitches and not the rhythms in 
this example to be partly random, we could merely 
exchange the output of the sequencer which controls 
the oscillator and the output of the control voltage 
processor. Similarly, if we would like the amplitudes to 
be partly random, we could exchange the output of the 
sequencer which controls the gate and the control volt- 
age processor; or we could simply use the output of 
the control voltage processor to control both the timing 
pulse generator and either the gate or the oscillator. 

Various controls which have not been mentioned to 
this point may now be tampered with in such a way as 
to change the total effect of this patching network. The 
attack time on the Model 180 Dual Attack Generator 

should be fairly fast if the notes are moving in a fast 
rhythm. (It might be easier to test this out with the 
external-internal switch for the "period" on the Model 
140 Timing Pulse Generator set to "internal".) If the 
attack times of the notes are greater than their total 
duration, the notes will never reach their full amplitude 



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SYSTEM OUTPUT 



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and the result will be either silence or a series of "muf 
fled crescendos." Similarly, the duration of the tones 
can be either constant or determined by the pulse 
length, which in this case is controlled by the middle 
dial on the Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator. If the 
duration of the tones is constant, it should be less than 
the amount of time between successive attacks, which 
is controlled by the "period" control (either internally 
or externally) on the Model 140 Timing Pulse Gener- 
ator; otherwise the tones will have no decay times. Any 
of these possible permutations still give comprehensible 

results, and could be used compositionally. 

There are two controls on the Model 140 Timing 
Pulse Generator which have external-internal switches: 
The "pulse length" and the "period". For purposes of 
demonstration, let us use the "internal position" for 
the time being, though for compositional purposes 
both could be determined by external control voltages. 
The period control determines the duration between 
successive timing pulse outputs, and the pulse length 
control determines the duration of each timing pulse. 
With the duration switch on the Model 180 Attack Gen- 



erator set such that it is determined by the trigger 
length, these controls can be used to determine the to- 
tal rhythmic structure of a sequence of tones, which can 
be dynamically varied since the values can be deter- 
mined by external control voltages. In the example 
shown, it is interesting to note that the timing pulse 
generator controls the sequencer and is in turn con- 
trolled by the sequencer. 

The controls on the Model 156 Dual Control Voltage 
Processor allow a great variety of means to determine 
the result. The bottom dial determines a mixture of the 
two inputs: if it is pointing straight up, the two inputs 
are mixed in equal amplitudes; if it is pointing more 
toward either input, more of that input is sent to the 
output, until finally the other input is cut out entirely. 
The middle dial is an internal voltage source. If the 
control voltage processor is used to control pitch, it can 
be used to transpose the pitches up or down uniformly. 
In this example it can be used to make the total rhythm 
of the "period" control on the Model 140 Timing Pulse 
Generator produce a generally fast or slow result, with- 
in the limitations of the settings of the dials on the 



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Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source. The final diaf is 
similar to the bottom dial, and determines a mixture 
of the inputs and the internal voltage source: the dif- 
ferent positions have the same meaning as with the 
bottom dial. Thus, several levels of control are possible 
with the control voltage processor, and the user is en- 
couraged to experiment with it to determine its full 
range of effectiveness. 

Example 3 

Now we are ready to consider an even more compli- 
cated example, one that might be used in an actual 
musical composition. There will be two system outputs 
in this example though, of course, both of them could 
be mixed together to form one sound. One output will 
be a series of frequency-modulated tones of partly pre- 
determined and partly random frequencies. The other 
output will be a more complicated sound, which will 
involve mixing together the two outputs of the frequency 
shifter and applying a glissando to one of the inputs 
to the frequency shifter which is proportional to the 
envelope of the sound. Both sounds will be given in- 
dependent reverberation, and their total rhythm will be 
such that there will be a whole series of frequency- 
modulated sounds for each of the frequency-shifted 
sounds, which will decay slowly while the other sounds 
continue to be attacked. The remaining aspects of this 
example are best described by the actual details of the 
patching network itself. 

As in Example 2, it is suggested that you start with 
all patches removed from the system then follow these 
instructions: 

• Patch a timing pulse from the "all pulses" output 
of a Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator to the in- 
put on a Model 123 (or Model 146) Sequential 
Voltage Source. 

• Patch from the "all pulses" output of a Model 140 
Timing Pulse Generator to the trigger input on a 
Model 180 Attack Generator. 

• Patch from two adjacent timing pulse outputs of 
the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to the 
timing pulse inputs on a Model 180 Attack Gener- 
ator and on a Model 165 Random Voltage Source, 
in that order. 

• Patch a control voltage from one of the three out- 
puts of the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source 
to one of the inputs on the left side of a Model 
156 Control Voltage Processor. 

• Patch the control voltage output from the Model 
165 Random Voltage Source into the remaining 
input on the left side of the Model 156 Control 
Voltage Processor. 

• Patch the output of the left side of the Model 156 
Control Voltage Processor to both the "period" 
input on the Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator 
and to the left side of a Model 158 Dual Sine- 
Sawtooth Oscillator. 



• Patch a control voltage from one of the other out 
puts of the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source 
to the right side of the Model 158 Dual Sine-Saw- 
tooth Oscillator. 

• Patch the remaining control voltage output of the 
Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to the 
"pulse length" input on the Model 140 Timing 
Pulse Generator. 

• Patch the output of the Model 180 Dual Attack 
Generator which is triggered by the Model 140 

Timing Pulse Generator to the control voltage in- 
put on a Model 110 Dual Voltage-Controlled Gate. 

• Patch the audio signal output of the right side of 
the Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator, 
which is controlled by the Model 123 Sequential 
Voltage Source, to the Frequency Modulation input 
on the left side of the Model 158 Dual Sine-Saw- 
tooth Oscillator. 

• Patch the audio signal output of the left side of 
the Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator to the 
audio signal input on the Model 1 10 Dual Voltage- 
Controlled Gate. 

• Patch the output of the Model 110 Dual Voltage 
Controlled Gate into a Model 190 Dual Reverber- 
ation Unit. 

• Turn the external-internal switches for the "pulse 
length" and "period" on the Model 140 Timing 
Pulse Generator and the external-internal switch 
on the Model 158 Dual Sine Sawtooth Oscillator 
to "external". 

• The system output for the series of frequency- 
modulated tones is now available as the output of 
the Model 190 Reverberation Unit. 

The basic frequencies of the frequency-modulated tones 
are partly random, and are directly correlated to their 
rhythm. The modulation frequencies are repetitive. The 
entire character of the music can be changed by simply 
moving the dial on the Model 123 Sequential Voltage 
Source on the Model 156 Control Voltage Processor. 
To set up the other half of this example, follow these 
directions: 

• Patch control voltages from the Model 180 Dual 
Attack Generator which is triggered by the Model 
123 Sequential Voltage Source to both a Model 
110 Dual Voltage-Controlled Gate and to the left 
input on the right side of the Model 156 Dual 
Control Voltage Processor. Since this will be the 
only input to the right side of the Model 156, the 
bottom dial can be turned all the way in this di- 
rection. 

• Patch the output of the right side of the Model 
156 Dual Control Voltage Processor to the control 
voltage input on a Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth 
Oscillator. 

• Patch a control voltage from the Model 165 Ran- 
dom Voltage Source to the control voltage input 
on a Model 144 Dual Square Wave Oscillator. 



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Turn the external-internal switches on both of the 
Model 144 and Model 158 Oscillators- to "exter- 
nal". 

Patch the audio signal output of the Model 158 
Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator to the left input of a 
Model 185 Frequency Shifter. 
Patch the audio signal output of the Model 144 
Square Wave Oscillator into the right input of the 
Model 185 Frequency Shifter. 
Patch both the sum and difference outputs of the 
Model 185 Frequency Shifter into two inputs on 
a Model 106 Six-Channel Mixer. 



• Patch the output of the Model 106 Six-Channel 
Mixer into the Model 110 Voltage Controlled Gate. 

• Patch the output of the Model 110 Voltage Con- 
trolled Gate into a Model 190 Dual Reverberation 

Unit. 

• The system output is now available as the output 
of the Model 190 Dual Reverberation Unit. 

The entire patching network for Example 3 is illustrated 
in Figure 3. 



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In order to realize the full effectivenes of this set-up, 
the decay time of the Model 180 Attack Generator 
should be quite long and the duration fairly short. In 
that way the frequency glide controlling the Model 185 
Frequency Shifter will be quite long, and the manner 
in which the sound dies out will be more noticeable. It 
would also be possible to use the same timing pulse 
output of the Model 123 Sequencer to control both 
the attack generator and the Model 165 Dual Random 
Voltage Source, but this is not necessary if the timing 
pulse for the attack generator is taken immediately 
after that for the random voltage source; in that way 
the same value of the random voltage source can be 
maintained for nearly the whole duration of the sound, 
which will be at the end of its decay when the random 
voltage changes. 

It is interesting to make slight changes in this set-up 
and compare the results: patch the output of the en- 
velope generator into the "inverting" jack on the con- 
trol voltage processor; the envelope of the sound will 
be just the same, but the frequency glides will be in 
the opposite direction. It is also interesting to switch 
the two inputs on the frequency shifter, or to experi- 
ment with different amounts of reverberation. 

The total rhythm of both outputs in this example is 
correlated so that there will be one slowly changing 
frequency-shifted sound against eight (or less) frequen- 
cy-modulated tones, which will be recurring in varied 
rhythmic patterns. Slight changes on the dials on the 
control voltage processors, attack generators, or the se- 
quencer will produce a great variety of interesting mu- 
sical effects, 



Example 4 

This example is called the "complex envelope". It 
was invented by Morton Subotnick who used it extens- 
ively in his album "The Wild Bull". The entire patch 
uses only one oscillator and one basic sound, and in 
combining it with other sounds it can_be thought of as 
just a single tone. To set it up, follow these directions: 

• Patch a timing pulse from the "all pulses" output 
of a Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator to the 
input on a Model 123 (or 146) Sequential Voftage 
Source. 

• Patch the time pulse outputs 1-4 on the Model 
123 Sequential Voltage Source to the trigger in- 
puts on four Model 180 Attack Generators (that is, 
two dual modules). 

• Turn the rotary switch in the upper left corner of 
the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to posi- 
tion 5. 

• Patch a control voltage from output "A" of the 
Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source to the 
"period" input on the Model 140 Timing Pulse 
Generator, and turn the external-internal switch 
to "external". 



• Turn the first four control voltage dials for row 
"A" of the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source 
afl the way to the left, and set the fifth approxi- 
mately in the middle. 

• Patch the control voltage outputs of the four Mod- 
el 180 Attack Generator to control voltage inputs 
number 1, 2, 6, and 7 on a Model 107 Voltage 
Controlled Mixer. 

• Patch the audio signal output of a Model 158 Dual 
Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator to the input on a Model 
195 Format Filter, and turn the wave shape con- 
trol to "sawtooth". 

• Patch any four outputs of the Model 195 Octave 
Format Filter into the audio signal inputs number 
1, 2, 6 and 7 on the Model 107 Voltage Controlled 
Mixer. 

• The system output is now available as the output 
of the Model 107 Voltage Controlled Mixer. If one 
system output is desired, the middle output 
marked "all" can be taken. If two outputs are de- 
sired, the outputs marked "1-5" and "6-10" are 
available separately. The latter situation affords 
opportunity for interesting spatial effects. This 
entire patching network is illustrated in Figure 4. 

In its most basic form, the complex envelope patch 
works best with the durations of the four Model 180 
Attack Generators controlled internally. The attack and 
decay controls on the four attack generators control the 
envelope characteristics of different sets of harmonic 
partials of the basic tone. They can be arranged to fade 
in and out at many different rates, but the effect is al- 
ways perceived as different qualities of one basic sound. 

Row "A" on the Model 123 Sequential Voltage 
Source controls the total rhythm of the complex enve- 
lope. However, since the first four dials are sot all the 
way to the left, their attacks are effectively instantane- 
ous. The fifth dial, then, functions as a master rhythmic 
control, which determines the rate at which the entire 
sequence progresses. 

The whole patch as shown, uses just one oscillator, 
It is also possible to frequency-modulate one oscillator 
with another, which produces an entire new range of 
sounds. Since the basic tone in the latter case contains 
combination tones, it can be a sine wave. In the former 
case it is necessary to use a tone with many harmonics 
in order to give the filter a range to operate over. 

The Entire complex envelope, nevertheless, still op- 
erates as a single (monophonic or stereophonic) sound, 
and can be combined with other sounds as a single 
event. 



Now suppose' we would like to set up a series of 
tones of different predetermined and correlated ampli- 
£~j tudes and frequencies. In this case it would be con- 
venient to use one row of dials on the Model 1 12 Touch 
Controlled Voltage Source to control frequency and the 
other to control amplitude, and so we must find a 
module which applies a control voltage to amplitude. 
Such a module would be either the Model 107 Voltage- 
Controlled Mixer or the Model 110 Dual Voltage Con- 
trolled Gate. Since we are already using one side of the 
Model 110 Gate for envelope control, it would be con- 
venient to use the other side to control amplitude. It 
is necessary to patch from the desired control voltage 



output on the Model 112 keyboard to the control volt- 
age input on the unused side of the Model 110 gate, 
and from the audio signal output of the envelope side 
of the Model 110 gate (which was the system output 
in Figure 1A) to the audio signal input on the opposite 
side, and the system output is now available at the out- 
put of this side of the Model 110 gate. The settings on 
the dials of the Model 112 keyboard bear the same 
relationship to the amplitudes of the tones as the cor- 
responding settings of the dial on the front panel of 
the Model 110 gate, so that this dial can be used as a 
"master volume control" for the entire series of tones 
produced by this patching set-up (see Figure ID). 



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Now we are in a position to consider how any gen- 
eral signal modification could be added to a tone which 
has already been generated and processed to some de- 
gree: we need to patch simply from the signal output 
(which up to know has been taken as the system output) 
to the signal input on a new device, and then take the 
system output from the new device. This process can 
be repeated until any desired degree of signal modifi- 
cation is achieved. For example, suppose we would like 



to add reverberation to a signal output from Example 
1A. We need to patch only from the audio signal output 
of the Model 110 gate in Example 1A to the signal in- 
put on either side of a Model 190 Dual Reverberation 
Unit, and take the system output from one of the two 
output jacks immediately above the input we selected 
(see Figure IE). The dial in this case controls the 
amount of reverberation in the final sound. 



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Now suppose we wish to add a low filter to the sound 
just produced in Example IE. All we need to do is patch 
the output of the reverberation unit in Example IE to 
the input on either side of a Model 192 Dual Lo-pass 
Filter, and take the system output from the filter (see 
Figure IF). The dial on the Model 192 Filter now con- 
trols the on/off frequency of the lowpass filter. Note 
that it makes no difference whether we patch the re- 



verberation unit or the filter in first, as long as the 
final sound passes through all of these modules before 
being taken as the system output. This is a general rule 
which holds for any signal processing; extensive modi- 
fications can be compounded one onto another, and 
as long as the system output is taken after all of the 
modifications, the results will be the same, regardless 
of the order in which they are applied. 



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DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL MODULES 

Model 106 Six-Channel Mixer 

The Model 106 Six Channel Mixer contains six signal 
inputs and four signal outputs and six volume controls 

for the inputs on its front panel. 
Lines are drawn on the panel between the input jacks 
and the associated volume controls. The volume level 
of each of the inputs may be separately set by these 
controls, but there is no master gain control for the 

output. 

The Model 106 Six-Channel Mixer is really three-chan- 
nel mixers with separate and common outputs. The 
middle two outputs are for the sum of the six inputs, 
and the other two jacks for channels 1-3 and 4-6, re- 
spectively. 



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Model 107 Voltage-Controlled Mixer 

The Model 107 Voltage-Controlled Mixer provides a 
way of applying a control voltage to the amplitudes of 
ten audio signals and mixing the result into. one or two 
separate complex signals. Its front panel has ten associ- 
ated signal inputs, control voltage inputs, and volume 
control dials, and three pairs of vertically aligned signal 

outputs. 

The associated signal and control voltage inputs are 
vertically aligned and are numbered 1-10. The volume 
control dials are also numbered to indicate their corre- 
spondence to the inputs. The final amplitudes of the 
audio signal inputs are a result of the control voltage 
input and the setting oathe dial, so that two levels of 
control are provided. The control voltage input might 
be taken either from an envelope generator, in which 
case the envelope is applied to the amplitude of the 
input signal, or from some programmable voltage 
source, such as the Model 146 Sequential Voltage 
Source or the Model 112 Touch Controlled Voltage 
Source, in which case the control voltage determines 
the loudness level of the input signal. 

The three pairs of signal outputs provide a mixture 
of inputs 1*5, 6-10, or all of the inputs, so that the 
unit can be used as two separate five-input mixers or 
one ten-input mixer. 



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Model 110 Dual Voltage Controlled Gate 

The Model 110 Dual Voltage Controlled Gate is nec- 
essary for amplifying audio signals according to an ex- 
ternally determined control voltage. It has two pairs of 
signal inputs with an assocfated control input and sig- 
nal level control and two signal outputs. 

The control input to the Model 1 10 Dual Voltage Con- 
trolled gate generally comes from a Model 180 Dual 
Attack Generator, in which case the gate is used to 
process envelopes. (See section 7-180.) However, the 
control input may come from any external device with 
a control output, and the gate is capable of processing 
any amplitude-modifying function. 

The signal level control determines the amplitude of 
of the output which is processed by the control input. 




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Model 111 Dual Ring Modulator 

Ring modulation is a special kind of amplitude mod- 
ulation which contains both the same and different fre- 
quencies of two input signals. The Model 111 Dual Ring 
Modulator consists of two independent ring modulators 
in one panel. Each ring modulator has two signal inputs 
and a pair of signal outputs. There are no other con- 
trols. It makes no difference which of the two input sig- 
nals is patched into which input on the panel, as long 
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Model 112 Touch Controlled Voltage Source 

The Model 112 Touch Controlled Voltage Source is 
used to initiate timing pulses and control voltages by 
manual means. It consists of 16 touch-activated, pres- 
sure-sensitive keys together with two rows of 16 asso- 
ciated fixed control voltage dials and two control out- 
puts for each row. There is also a third pair of control 
outputs whose output voltage is proportional to the 
finger pressure on any key, and a fourth pair of timing 
pulse outputs. 

The fixed control voltage associated with any key 
may be determined by the setting on the coresponding 



dial in either row. Touching a key merely selects one of 
the control voltages in this case. 

The value of the control voltage at the third pair of 
control outputs is proportional to the finger pressure on 
any key. This provides a means of manual dynamic vari- 
ation of controJ voltage. 

The timing pulse output is activated whenever a key 
is touched. Thus the Model 112 Touch Controlled Volt- 
age Source may be used manually to initiate a note or 
series of notes with both predetermined and dynamical- 
ly variable control voltage parameters. 



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Model 114 Touch Controlled Voltage Source 

The Model 114 Touch Controlled Voltage Source is 
similar in appearance to the Model 112 Touch Con- 
trolled Voltage Source, but it is actually used for very 
different purposes. It consists of ten pressure-sensi- 
tive touch activated keys with ten associated control 
voltage dials, decay time dials, control voltage outputs, 
and timing pulse outputs. There are separate control 
voltage and timing pulse outputs for each key, and each 



is numbered to indicate the correspondence. 

The ten timing pulse outputs are activated only when 
the corresponding key is touched, unlike the Model 
112, where the timing pulses are activated when any 
key is touched. Timing pulses can be used to initiate 
Model 123 or 146 Sequential Voltage Sources, Model 
180 Attack Generators, Model 165 Random Voltage 
Sources, or Model 140 Timing Pulse Generators. 



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When the control voltage dial for a given key is 
turned all the way to the left, the control voltage output 
■for that key is determined entirely by finger pressure. 
When the dial is all the way to the right, the control volt- 
age output is a constant maximum value. At intermediate 
stages, the control voltage output is a combination of 
the setting on the dial and finger pressure. This feature 
of the Model 114 Touch Controlled Voltage Source is 
particularly useful for controlling Model 110 Voltage 
Controlled Gates or Model 107 Voltage Controlled Mix- 
ers. The keys can then be used to control the ampli- 
tudes of a combination of tones which are being mixed 
into a single output. The correspondence of ten control 
voltage outputs on the Model 114 Touch Controlled 
Voltage Source and ten control voltage inputs on the 
Model 107 Voltage Controlled Mixer is especially con- 
venient 

The decay time dials provide an additional level of 
control that makes possible cross-fading between sever- 
al tones in a mixture. When the dials are all the way to 
the left, the control voltage output is released as soon 
as the finger is taken off the key. As the dials are turned 
more toward the right, there is an increasing decay time 
over which the control voltage output drops to zero 
after the finger is released. Thus, one tone can fade 
away while another is brought in by slowly increasing 
finger pressure, or several touch-activated tones can 
be made to fade away at different rates. 

Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source 

The Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source, one of 
the most important modules of the Buchla System, pro- 
duces a repetitive sequence of from two to eight pro- 
grammed control voltages at each of three outputs. Its 
front panel includes a timing pulse input, an output ro- 
tary switch, three pairs of control voltage outputs, eight 
timing pulse outputs, eight red indicator lamps, and 
three rows of eight control voltage potentiometers. 



The timing pulse input usually comes from a Model 
140 Timing Pulse Generator, but it may also come from 
a Touch Controlled Voltage Source. The timing pulses 
determines switching between a sequence of between v 
two and eight groups of three programmed control volt- 
ages. The number of events in the sequence is deter- 
mined by the output rotary switch. Upon receiving a 
timing pulse, the unit moves to the next group of pro- 
grammed control voltages. The switching is sequential, 
so that when it reaches the end of the sequence it re- 
turns to the beginning. 

The eight red indicator lamps show which group of 
three associated control voltage potentiometers are 
currently in control. The potentiometers are arranged 
in a 3 x 8 matrix. Each'column is associated with a sin- 
gle event, with the corresponding indicator lamp located 
immediately above. Each row is associated with the 
same control voltage output jacks: the top row feeds 
jacks "A", the middle row jacks "B" and the bottom 
row jacks "C". The eight pulse outputs are energized 
as the corresponding segments are switched. 



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Thus, up to three parameters of a repetitive sequence 
of up to eight notes may be separately and simultane- 
ously controlled. These parameters may correspond, for 
example, to pitch, amplitude, and duration. 

Model 124 Patchboard 

Consists of 24 miniature audio jacks mounted on a 
panel. Used in studio installations to facilitate connec- 
tion to tape recorders, narrators, and other auxiliary 
equipment. 

Model 130 Dual Envelope Detector 

The Model 130 Dual Envelope Detector produces a 
control voltage proportional to the instantaneous am- 
plitude of an applied signal. In such a way it can repro- 
duce the envelope of an. applied "command" signal or 
perform other general-purpose functions that involve 
converting an audio signal into a control voltage. 

The side of the front panel of the Model 130 Dual 
Envelope Detector contains an audio signal input, a pair 



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Model 130 Dual Envelope Detectoi 



of control voltage outputs, and dials for the sensitivity 
and decay time. The sensitivity control determines the 
proportion of the input signal which the envelope de- 
tector will respond to. When it is set at 2ero, all the way 
to the left, it will not respond regardless of the ampli- 
tude of the input signal. As it is turned more toward the 
right, the envelope detector will respond to an increas- 
ingly softer input signal until, when it is all the way to 
the right, it will respond to any level input signal. (It 
is important to remember, however, that its output is 
still proportional to the input signal, so that a very soft 
signal will produce a very small value.) Thus, the sensi- 
tivity control acts as a threshold device. 

The decay time dial provides an additional level of 
control over the rate at which the control voltage out- 
put fades out. When it is all the way to the left, the con- 
trol voltage is released in exact correspondence with the 
amplitude of the input signal. When it is moved more 
toward the right, the release is not instantaneous, but 
is allowed to fade out over a longer time. The decay 
time can be varied from .01 to 1 second. 

Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator 

The Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator is used to 
initiate timing pulses in various ways. Its front panel 
has two timing pulse outputs for all pulses and two for 
alternate pulses, two control voltage inputs for the 
pulse length and period, two timing pulse inputs for the 
start-stop mode, a three-position rotary switch, a push 
button, pulse length and period (tempo) controls, and 
external-internal switches for the pulse length and 
period. 

The timing pulse outputs are available at the top 
jacks. The right jacks output all pulses and the left jacks 
alternate pulses only. 

The mode switch has three positions: start-stop, single 
pulse, and repetitive. In the start-stop mode, the action 
of the Timing Pulse Generator is controlled by external 
timing pulses, which may come from another Timing 
Pulse Generator or a Touch Controlled Voltage Source. 
In the single pulse mode, a new pulse is generated only 
when the push button is depressed. In the repetitive 
mode, new pulses are generated at a rate determined 
by the period (tempo) control. 

^ The period (tempo) control, if determined internally, 
will generate a new pulse at a regularly repeating tempo 
between .005 seconds (200 cycles per second) and 20 
seconds. The period may also be controlled externally 
by a control voltage. If it is desired to use, for example, 
one of the control voltage outputs of the Model 123 Se- 
quential Voltage Source to determine duration between 
successive attacks, it must be patched into this control 
input. Thus, the Timing Pulse Generator controls and is 
controlled by the Sequential Voltage Source. 

The pufse length is always determined as a percent- 
age of the period, and may be used to control the dura- 
tion on a Model 180 Dual Attack Generator. (See sec- 
tion 7-180.) If determined internally, the pulse length 



may be set to a constant between and 100 per cent. 
It may also be determined externally by a control volt- 
age. 

The Model 140 Timing Pulse Generator is usually 

used to control either a Model 123 Sequential Voltage 
Source or a Model 165 Dual Random Voltage Source, 
or both, and a Model 180 Dual Attack Generator simul- 
taneously. 



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Model 144 Dual Square Wave Oscillator 

The Model 144 Dual Square Wave Oscillator is a 
basic signal generating module of the Buchla System. 
Each oscillator contains two signal outputs, a control 
voltage input, an amplitude modulation control with an 
associated signal input, a frequency modulation control 
with an associated signal input, and a frequency control 
dial. There is also an internal-external switch which al- 
lows the frequencies of both oscillators to be deter- 
mined by external control voltages. Frequencies are 
continuously variable between 5 and 20,000 cycles per 
second. 






The frequency modulation (vibrato) and amplitude 
modulation (tremolo) controls allow the signal output to 
be varied. Both controls require an external signal input f*' 
(usually from another oscillator), which determines the 
rate (speed) of modulation. The control dial determines 
the bandwidth (amplitude of the modulation, and is con- 
tinuously variable between zero and the maximum 
amount of the input signal. This is one of the few cases 
in the Buchla System where a signal is used to deter- 
mine an aspect of an instrument's operating character- 
istics. 

It is a curious feature of the Buchla System that only 
the square wave oscillators have amplitude modulation 
controls (cf. section 7-158). 



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Model 146 Sequential Voltage Source 

The Model 146 Sequential Voltage Source is identi- 
cal to the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source, except 
that it has sixteen groups of three control voltage out- 
puts and sixteen timing pulse outputs instead of eight. 



For this reason it takes up twice as much panel space 
as the Model 123 Sequential Voltage Source, but in all 
other respects it is identical. 



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Model 148 — Harmonic Generator 

Model 156 Dual Control Voltage Processor 

The Model 156 Dual Control Voltage Processor is 
used to combine, transpose, compress and invert con- 
trol voltages. Each channel has two control voltage in- 
puts, two control voltage outputs, two voltage selector 
dials and an internal voltage source. The left and right 
sides of the module have distinctly different functions, 

unlike most dual units. 

Both of the control voltage inputs (in each channel) 
are connected to the bottom voltage selector dial. In 
the left unit, the voltage selector dial simply combines 
the two voltages, whereas in the right unit it inverts the 
voltage at the right input, such that the maximum volt- 



age (15 volts) is transformed into the minimum (.5 
volts) and vice-versa. Intermediate values are inverted 
modulo 14.5 (+.5) volts. (E. g., 6 volts would be in- 
verted into 14.5 ( + .5) —6 (—.5) = 9.5 volts.) Thus, 
frequency is inverted modulo 20,000 ( — 5) c.p.s. 

The bottom voltage selector dial simply combines a 
proportion of the left and right control voltage inputs 
and feeds the result to the top dial. When the bottom 
dial is all the way to the left, only the left input is 
fed to the top dial, and when it is all the way to right, 
only the right input is fed to the top dial. When it js 
set at some intermediate value, some proportion of 
each input is fed to the top dial, so that the maximum 
voltage that it could ever put out would be 15 volts. 
(Thus, setting the dial exactly half way in the middle will 
cause half the voltage of each input to be combined (or 

inverted) and fed to the top dial.) 

The middle dial sets the value of the internal voltage 
source. If no inputs are patched into the unit, the out- 
put will simply be this value, so that the unit may be 
used as a separate fixed voltage source. 

The top voltage selector dial determines what pro- 
portion of the combined inputs and the internal voltage 
source is fed to the outputs. When it is set all the way 
to the left, only the inputs are fed to the ouput, and 
when it is set all the way to the right, only the internal 
voltage source is fed to the output. Intermediate values 
determine what proportion of these two sources is fed 
to the output, so that when it is more to the right, a 
greater proportion of the internal voltage source is fed 
to the output, and when it is more to the left, a greater 
proportion of the inputs is fed to the output. Thus, turn- 



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ing the dial toward the right gradually compresses the 
voltages until they are equal to the internal voltage 
source. When the top dial is set at some intermediate 
value, the internal voltage source can be used to trans- 
pose the combined inputs up or down uniformly. 

Thus, both units can be used to transpose, compress, 
and combine control voltages, and the right unit can be 
used to invert control voltages as well. 



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Model 158 Dual Sine-Sawtooth Oscillator 

The Model 158 Dual Sine-Sowtooth Oscillator is sim- 
ilar in appearance to the Model 144 Dual Square Wave 
Oscillator. Each oscillator contains two signal outputs, 
a control voltage input, a wave shape control r a fre- 
quency modulation control with an associated signal in- 
put, and a frequency control dial. There is also an inter- 
nal-external switch which affects both oscillators, allow- 
ing their frequencies to be determined by an external 
control voltage. Frequencies are continuously variable 
between 5 and 20,000 cycles per second. 



The wave shape control allows the waveform of 'he 
output to be continuously varied between a sine wave 
and a sawtooth wave. When it is all the way to the left, 
the oscillator produces a sine wave, and turning it to 
the right gradually introduces upper partials until the 
full sawtooth wave is reached. 

The frequency modulation control requires an exter- 
nal signal input, which determines the rate (speed) of 
frequency modulation (vibrato), while the control itself 
determines the bandwidth (amplitude), and may be con- 
tinuously varied between zero and the full frequency 
value of the signal input (cf. section 7-144.). 



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Model 160 White Noise Generator 

The Model 160 White Noise Generator produces 
white noise with a flat frequency distribution from 5 to 
20,000 cycles per second and weighted noise with a 
constant power per octave distribution. Its front panel 
contains two signal outputs. 



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Model 165 Dual Random Voltage Source 

The Model 165 Dual Random Voltage Source pro- 
duces two uncorrelated, random control voltage outputs 
whenever it receives a timing pulse trigger. Its panel 
contains two separate timing pulse inputs and two con- 
trol outputs for each channel. The module can be used 
to randomize frequency, amplitude, time, or any other 
parameter determined by a control voltage. 

(Note: this unit produces a "click'" whenever it re- 
ceives the timing pulse trigger, which signifies that it 
has generated a new random voltage. This click is not 
part of the output and does not affect the signal in any 
way.) 



Model 180 Dual Attack Generator 

The Model 180 Dual Attack Generator produces an 
envelope control voltage initiated by a timing pulse. The 
two units in its panel are entirely separate. Each Attack 
Generator has two control voltage outputs, a trigger 
(timing pulse) input, separate controls for attack time, 
decay time, and note duration, and an external-internal 
switch which allows the note duration to be determined 
by the trfgger length. 

The timing pulse is initiated either by a Model 140 
Timing Pulse Generator or a Touch Controlled Voltage 
Source. The attack time is variable from .002 to 1 sec- 
ond; decay time from .002 to 5 seconds; duration from 
.002 to 5 seconds. The mode of attack and decay is 
assumed to be exponential. 

Since the output of the Model 180 Dual Attack Gen- 
erator is a control voltage, it must be used together 
with a Model 110 Dual Voltage Controlled Gate to ap- 



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be used to control any parameter, such as frequency, 
directly. 

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Model 185 Frequency Shifter 

The Model 185 Frequency Shifter is used to shift 
frequencies of an input signal by an amount determined 
by another applied carrier frequency. The shitting is' 
applied uniformly to all frequencies in the input signal, 
so that the unit is not a transposing device, but a de- 
vice for obtaining new timbres, usually containing non- 
harmonic partiais. 

The front panel of the Model 185 Frequency Shifter 
contains two signal inputs and four signal outputs, two 
of which are marked "sum" and two of which are 
marked " difference". The left signal input is for the 
signal and the right is for the carrier frequency. In the 
sum outputs the carrier frequency is added to the fre- 
quencies of the input signal, and in the difference out- 
puts the carrier frequency is subtracted from the input 



signal. In the case of the difference outputs only, nega- 
tive frequencies may be present and audible. In the 
case of sum outputs, frequencies shifted above the P 
limits of audibility will simply be lost. 

If the sum and difference outputs are mixed into one 
signal, the Model 185 Frequency Shifter produces ring 
modulation. 



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Model 190 Dual Reverberation Unit 

The Model 190 Dual Reverberation Unit contains two 
independent spring type reverberators. Each reverbera- 
tor contains a signal input, two signal outputs, and a 
reverberation control dial. The degree of reverberation 
is continuously variable by the reverberation controf 
dial. . 



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Model 195 Octave Format Filter 

The Model 195 Octave Format Filter divides one in- 
put signal into ten frequency bands centered at octave 
intervals from 31 cps to 16 kc. Its front panel contains 
one audio signal input and ten pairs of audio signal 
outputs of frequency bands centered at 31, 62, 125, 
250, 500, Ik, 2k, 4k, 8k, and 16k cycles per second. 
The associated pairs of output jacks are vertically 
aligned in this case, and lines are drawn between the 
two jacks extending down to the frequency label. 



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Educational Research Department, 
CBS Musical Instruments, Columbia 
Broadcasting System Inc., 1300 E. 
Valencia, Fullerton, California 92631.